Indigenous Tourism Ventures in Malaysia: Exploring its Potentials and Limitations


Tourism economics, Indigenous tourism, Cultural, SWOT/TOWS analysis,

How to Cite

Mohd Idris, S. H., & Mohd Saleh, N. H. (2018). Indigenous Tourism Ventures in Malaysia: Exploring its Potentials and Limitations. PRIZREN SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, 2(3), 94-104.


Agro and ecotourism activities in Cameron Highlands Malaysia play a vital role in promoting growth to its surrounding region.  Tourism activities generate income to the local residents including the indigenous community that lives in settlements scattered within this tourism hub. Although previous studies have highlighted the economic needs to also introduce indigenous tourism to this area, limited studies have actually evaluated its potentials and limitations as a tourism product. Hence this study embarks on appraising indigenous tourism potentials and developing strategies for its successful implementation. SWOT analysis was performed to detail its internal strengths and weaknesses and its external opportunities and threats. TOWS matrix was used as a situational analysis in developing strategies for the implementation of the proposed indigenous tourism product. The SWOT analysis shows this product has 13 strengths, 10 weaknesses, 13 opportunities and 9 threats.  These points are used in the TOWS matrix and relevant strategies were proposed. This study concludes that indigenous tourism has great potential to be explored in this region but appropriate measures must be considered in its development and implementation.

Key words: Tourism Economics, Indigenous Tourism, Cultural, SWOT/TOWS Analysis


1. Harrill, R. (2004). Residents’ attitudes toward tourism development: A literature review with Implications for tourism planning. Journal of Planning Literature,18(3), 251-266.
2. Aref, F. (2010). Residents' attitudes towards tourism impacts: a case study of Shiraz, Iran. Tourism Analysis, 15(2), 253-261.
3. Altman, J., & Finlayson, J. (1993). Aborigines, tourism and sustainable development. Journal of Tourism Studies, 4(1), 38-50.
4. Ap, J.(1992). Residents' perceptions on tourism impacts. Annals of tourism Research, 19(4), 665- 690.
5. Barrow, C. J., Clifton, J., Chan, N. W., & Tan, Y. L. (2005). Sustainable development in the Cameron highlands, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Environmental Management, 6, 41-57.
6. Bunten, A. C. (2010). More like ourselves: indigenous capitalism through tourism. The American Indian Quarterly, 34(3), 285-311.
7. Chan, N.W., Clifton, J., Barrow, C.J., Chang, W.F., Wong, C.F. & Ting, P.L. (2003). Development issues and prospects in Cameron Highlands. In Wan Ruslan Ismail, Samar, N., Majid, A.A., Abdulla, M.A. & Abdullah, A.L. (Eds.). Proceedings of a Conference on Society, Space and Environment in a Globalised World, 240-251. Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia.
8. Notzke, C. (1999). Indigenous tourism development in the Arctic. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(1), 55-76.
9. Craig-Smith, S., & French, C. (1994). Learning to live with tourism. Melbourne: Pitman Publishing.
10. Doggett, S.L., Geary, M.J. & Russell, R.C. (2001). Reports and reviews. Environmental Health, 3(4), 80.
11. Evelyn, H. (1985). See the Third World while it lasts. The social and environmental impact of tourism with special reference to Malaysia. Consumers' Association of Penang.
12. Foucat, V.S.A. (2002). Community-based ecotourism management: moving towards sustainability in Ventenilla, Oaxaca, Mexico. Ocean & Coastal Management, 45(8), 511-529.
13. Gunn, C. A., & Var, T. (2002). Tourism Planning: Basics, Concepts, Cases. Psychology Press.
14. Hall, D. R. (1999). Conceptualizing tourism transport: inequality and externality issues. Journal of Transport Geography, 7(3), 181-188.
15. Harron, S ., Weiler, B., & Hall, C. M. (1992). Ethnic tourism. Special Interest Tourism. 83-94.
16. Hinch, T., & Butler, R. (1996). Indigenous Tourism: A Common Ground for Discussion. In Butler RW and T. Hinch (eds) Tourism and Indigenous Peoples. London: International Thomson Business Press, pp3-19.
17. Hinch, T., & Prentice, P. (2004) Indigenous people and tourism. A Companion to Tourism, 246-61.
18. Hunter, C. (1997). Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(4), 850-867.
19. Kadir, Norsiah, & Mohd Zaini Abd Karim. (2009). Demand for tourism in malaysia by uk and us tourists: a cointegration and error correction model approach. Advances in Tourism Economics. Physica-Verlag HD, 51-70.
20. Kwon, Jeamok, & Christine A. Vogt. (2010). Identifying the role of cognitive, affective, and behavioral components in understanding residents’ attitudes toward place marketing. Journal of Travel Research, 49(4), 423-435.
21. Lepp, A. (2007). Residents’ attitudes towards tourism in Bigodi Village, Uganda. Tourism Management, 28(3), 876-885.
22. Liu, A., & Wall, G. (2006) Planning Tourism Employment: A Developing Country Perspective. Tourism Management, 27(1),159-170.
23. Luo, Y. (2018). Special focus: Identifying the influential elements in the regional tourism economy.
24. Man, Zanisah, Nurul Fatanah Zahari, & Omar, M. (2009). Kesan ekonomi pelancongan terhadap komuniti batek di Kuala Tahan, Pahang. e-BANGI: Jurnal Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, 4(1),1-12.
25. Mason, P. (2012) Tourism Impacts, Planning and Management. Routledge.
26. Mathieson, A., & Wall, G. (1982). Tourism, Economic, Physical and Social Impacts. Longman.
27. Mercer, D. (1994). Native Peoples and Tourism: Conflict and Compromise. Global Tourism: the next Decade. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
28. Mitchell, J., & Ashley, C. (2010). Tourism and Poverty Reduction Pathways to Prosperity. Earthscan.
29. Mustafa, Rahmat Azam, Alip Rahim, & Badaruddin Mohamed. (2004). Experiencing cultural tourism through the identification of cultural routes within the IMT-GT. The 2nd Asia-Pacific CHRIE (APacCHRIE) Conference & the 6th Biennial Conference on Tourism in Asia.
30. Nepal, S. K. (1997). Sustainable tourism, protected areas and livelihood needs of local communities in Developing Countries. The International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 4(2), 123-135.
31. Nicholas, C. (2000). The orang asli and the contest for resources: indigenous politics, development and identity in peninsular Malaysia. Copenhagen: International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs; Subang Jaya,Malaysia: Centre for Orang Asli Concerns.
32. Notzke, C. (2004). Indigenous tourism development in Southern Alberta, Canada: tentative engagement. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 12(1), 29-54.
33. Nowak, J.J., Sahli, M., & Pasquale M. Sgro (2003). Tourism, trade and domestic welfare. Pacific Economic Review. 8(3), 245-258.
34. Othman, R, Salleh, N.H.M., & Sarmidi, T. (2012). Analysis of causality relationship between tourism development, economic growth and foreign direct investment: An ARDL Approach. Journal of Applied Sciences, 12(12): 1245-1254.
35. Pasoff, M. (1991). Ecotourism Re-Examined. Earth Island Journal, 6(2), 28-29.
36. Queensland Annual Report (2003). Tourism Queensland Annual Report 2002-2003
37. Roseland, (2012). Toward Sustainable Communities: Solutions for Citizens and Their Governments. New Society Publishers.
38. Sahdan, Zuriatunfadzliah, Rosniza Aznie Che Rose, & Habibah Ahmad. (2009). Perubahan Budaya Orang Bateq Dalam Situasi Ekopelancongan Di Taman Negara. e-Bangi, 4(1), 159-169.
39. Salleh, N.H.M, Othman, R., Mohd Safar, H., & Jaafar, A.H. (2012a). The Pattern and the Impact of Middle Eastern Tourist Spending on Malaysia’s Economy. Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia, 46(2012), 53-63.
40. Salleh, N.H.M, Othman,O, Mohd Idris, S.H, Jaafar, A.H, & Selvaratnam,D.P.(2012b). The indigenous community’s perceptions of tourism development in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia: A Preliminary Analysis. International Journal of Tourism. Hospitality and Culinary Arts, 4(2), 71-87.
41. Seetanah, B. (2011). Assessing the dynamic economic impact of tourism for island economies. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(1), 291-308.
42. Siti Nor Awang & Juli Edo. (2003). Isu Pembangunan dan Dampak Sosial dalam Kalangan Masyarakat Orang Asli dlm Mohd Razali Agus & Yahya Ibrahim (eds.). Penilaian Dampak Sosial. 278-290.
43. Stone, M. T., & Nyaupane, G. P. (2018). Protected areas, wildlife-based community tourism and community livelihoods dynamics: spiraling up and down of community capitals. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(2), 307-324.
44. Tremblay, P., & Wegner, A. (2009). Indigenous/Aboriginal Tourism Research in Australia. Sustainable Tourism CRC, Gold Coast.
45. Tourism Potential in Canada’s North. (2008). Report on Survey Results July 2008. Developing the Tourism Potential of the North
46. Vargas-Sánchez, A., de los Ángeles Plaza-Mejía, M., & Porras-Bueno. (2009). Understanding residents' attitudes toward the development of industrial tourism in a former mining. Community. Journal of Travel Research, 47(3),373-387.
47. Veuren, E.V. (2003). Capitalising on indigenous cultures: cultural village tourism in South Africa. Africa Insight, 33(1/2), 69-77.
48. Wazir-Jahan, B.A.K. (1990). Environmental economics and forest resource industries among the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia. Monograph, School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang.
49. Weihrich, H. (1982). The TOWS Matrix—A Tool for Situational Analysis. Long Range Planning, 15(2), 54-66.
50. Whitford, M.M., & Ruhanen, L.M. (2010). Australian Indigenous Tourism Policy: Practical and Sustainable Policies? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(4), 475-496.
51. Zeppel, H. (1998). Land and Culture: Sustainable Tourism and Indigenous Peoples. In C.M. Hall & A. A Lew (Eds.), Sustainable Tourism: A Geographic Perspective (pp. 60-74). New York: Longman.


Download data is not yet available.